2.1. Causes of distortion
In a lens-coupled camera or detector, there are two major types of distortion which may often be seen in an acquired image: radial distortion and perspective distortion (Fig. 1).
Radial distortion is caused by the increase or decrease of the magnification of a lens with respect to the radius from the optical axis as shown in Fig. 2.
Perspective distortion can be caused by two sources: a lens-plane is not parallel to a camera-sensor plane, known as tangential distortion, (Fig. 3) and/or an object-plane is not parallel to a camera-sensor plane (Fig. 4).